Old English – A Linguistic Introduction

Old English 2

Old English provides a clear linguistic introduction to English between the 5th century and the Norman invasion in 1066. Tailored to suit the needs of individual course modules, it assumes no prior knowledge of the subject, and presents the basic facts in a straightforward manner, making it the ideal beginners’ text. Students are guided step-by-step through the main characteristics and developments of English during that period, aided by concise chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and a comprehensive glossary. Each chapter is accompanied by an engaging set of exercises and discussion questions based on authentic Anglo-Saxon texts, encouraging students to consolidate their learning, and providing essential self-study material. The book is accompanied by a companion website, featuring solutions to the exercises and useful additional resources. Providing essential knowledge and skills for those embarking on the study of Old English, it is set to become the leading introduction to the subject.

Series: Cambridge Introductions to the English Language
Hardcover: 212 pages
Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (April 27, 2009)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0521866774
ISBN-13: 978-0521866774
Product Dimensions: 6.8 x 0.7 x 9.7 inches
Shipping Weight: 1.3 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
Average Customer Review: 2.0 out of 5 stars See all reviews (1 customer review)
Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #7,780,374 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Order from Amazon: http://goo.gl/559W27

A Supervolcano on Mars

The European Space Agency has found what it believes to be a supervolcano on the surface of Mars that could be the Red Planet’s equivalent of Yellowstone.  The massive crater has been measured to be 40 kilometers by 30 kilometers and drops as low as 1,750 meters.

The exterior of Mars is full of holes and craters.  One of these, however, stands out among the rest.  The Siloe Patera crater, which is located in the Arabia Terra region of the planet, actually consists of two large craters that overlap one another and covers a total area of 120 square kilometers.

Images of the crater were captures using the high resolution stereo camera aboard the European Space Agency’s Mars Express craft on November 26, 2014.

Supervolcanoes are simply large volcanoes that can produce at least 1,000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material during an eruption.  For example, scientists recently discovered a new magma chamber in Yellowstone here on Earth that contains anywhere between 30,000 and 116,000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material.  That is enough material to fill the Grand Canyon 11 times.

Scientists studying the Siloe Patera crater on Mars believe that the crater is actually a caldera, the collapsed center of a volcano.  Unlike regular volcanoes, supervolcanoes do not have a cone shape because the enormity of the explosion triggered by the pressure of the magma and the speed in which it happens.

That means that finding a supervolcano that erupted millions, or even billions of years ago is not always easy.

“A number of irregularly shaped craters have been detected in the Arabia Terra region that could represent a family of ancient supervolcano calderas,” said spokespersons for the European Space Agency.  “Siloe Patera is one such example.  It is characterized by two depressions with steep-sided walls, collapse features and low topographic relief.”

Researchers at the ESA believe this could be a caldera instead of an impac crater because the latter usually have uplifted rims and a central peak as well as ejecta blankets surrounding them.  The differences in the depressions could also be evidence of two different eruptions when magma was released.  There are also several small channels and gullies that are cut into the walls.

“The valley, along with numerous other small channels in the immediate vicinity, appears to cut through material to the lower left of the craters that could be either ejecta from an impact or volcanic flow,” the ESA says.

ESA researchers admit that it is difficult to say for certain that Siloe Patera is for certain a supervolcano, as more data and information are still required.

Original article: http://goo.gl/0ZH2Ld

The Parable of the Tares


24-26 He told another story. “God’s kingdom is like a farmer who planted good seed in his field. That night, while his hired men were asleep, his enemy sowed thistles all through the wheat and slipped away before dawn. When the first green shoots appeared and the grain began to form, the thistles showed up, too.

27 “The farmhands came to the farmer and said, ‘Master, that was clean seed you planted, wasn’t it? Where did these thistles come from?’

28 “He answered, ‘Some enemy did this.’

“The farmhands asked, ‘Should we weed out the thistles?’

29-30 “He said, ‘No, if you weed the thistles, you’ll pull up the wheat, too. Let them grow together until harvest time. Then I’ll instruct the harvesters to pull up the thistles and tie them in bundles for the fire, then gather the wheat and put it in the barn.’”

Gospel of Matthew 24-30

The Bikini Bod Supplement Stack

Adaora Akubilo 2
With summer right around the corner, it’s time to supercharge your workouts with these fat-burning, muscle-building supplements!

All right ladies, you’ve been absolutely killing it in the gym the past few months, you haven’t missed a day of your training plan, and you’ve become an expert in counting macros. Now that your training and nutrition are on point, it’s time to take your transformation to the next level! With bikini season right around the corner, there’s no better time to pump up your lean-mass gains and accelerate your fat loss with these powerful supplements!

If the word “supplement” conjures images of your face atop Arnold Schwarzenegger’s physique, don’t worry; women produce significantly less testosterone than their male counterparts. Supplements, as the name suggests, are there to supplement an already-dialed-in training and nutrition plan. However, they can also give you that extra boost in the gym you may be looking for.

You’re not going to find a magic pill to help you shed those last few pounds of unwanted body fat or get you to your ideal physique overnight, but adding these research-backed supplements to your current plan will help get you beach ready in no time!

Trim the Fat

You’ve put in long hours hitting the weights and becoming BFFs with the treadmill in order to shed those final few pounds for your upcoming beach vacation. Before you add another day of cardio or ditch your beloved cheat meal, consider adding in one of these well-supported supplements to help you with your weight-loss goals.

Whey Protein

If your goal is to lose fat, make protein your priority. Increased protein consumption is associated with higher rates of satiety (feeling of fullness) and thermogenesis (energy expenditure). Simply adding an extra 20 grams of whey protein per day has been shown to increase fat loss over a placebo. As a bonus, protein powders are easy to consume while on the go and provide a high-quality, easily digestible, rapidly absorbed protein source.


You already know caffeine is the perfect pick-me-up in the morning, but did you know that caffeine can also help rid you of those last few pounds? Don’t get carried away here—you’re not going to see results just sitting on the couch drinking an iced white chocolate mocha. You still have to hit the gym to get the full benefits of caffeine, but studies have shown that supplements containing caffeine can increase the rate of lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and improve perceived exertion of exercise. Additionally, it’s been shown to increase energy expenditure by an average of 15.4 percent. In other words, you can expect an increased rate of fat burning and a seemingly easier workout. Doesn’t get much better than that, does it? Take 200-300 milligrams 30-60 minutes before your workout.

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG)

If the fat-burning powers of caffeine aren’t enough to impress you, consider combining it with EGCG, the primary ingredient in green tea that has been proposed to boost your metabolic rate. Taken together, the combination of EGCG and caffeine may be more beneficial when it comes to fat loss and increased energy.

Fish Oil

Fish oil does more than support a healthy heart. Adding 2 grams (2000 milligrams) of fish oil to your diet can increase the rate of fat breakdown and may even help increase fat-free mass. It can also help reduce some of the inflammation and soreness associated with dieting and higher amounts of exercise. If a potential for fishy burps sounds unappealing, just add a bit of soybean oil, canola oil, flaxseed oil, or rapeseed oil to your diet instead. These oils provide the same omega-3 fatty acids as fish oil.

Get Those Gains

Women should train their muscles just as often as men—do you think Jen Jewell got the body she has by skipping the weights? Not even a chance. Don’t fret—these supplements won’t have you looking like you’re ready for Muscle Beach in Venice. They will, however, increase you gym performance and help you get you beach-ready.


You may be under the impression that creatine leads to weight gain. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve had to listen to a guy at the gym brag about how he took creatine and instantly gained 10 pounds of muscle. This won’t happen to you, ladies. To minimize any potential weight gain and water retention, I recommend taking 3-5 grams per day for a period of at least 28 days.

The central premise behind creatine supplementation is that an increased concentration of creatine will increase the availability of phosphocreatine (PCr), an energy-producing substrate that can improve performance during high-intensity exercise. It’s even been demonstrated that creatine supplementation in females may lead to significantly increased strength in as little as five weeks.

Whey Protein

Consuming 20 grams of whey protein pre- or post-workout may increase protein synthesis and recovery following resistance training.11 I recommend combining whey and casein protein after your workouts, as the combination triggers the greatest increase in lean mass.12 With its multiple benefits, a protein supplement should absolutely be part of your nutrition regimen.


Once fatigue sets in, trying to finish that last set of lunges or your final few intervals on the treadmill can seem nearly impossible. Supplementing with beta-alanine may help you finish out those last few reps or give you the extra boost to run a little bit faster on each interval. Take 3-6 grams of beta-alanine daily to help improve the buffering capacity of your muscles, ultimately leading to improvements in high-intensity exercise. Get into your favorite bikini faster!

by Parker Hyde

Original article: http://goo.gl/KgOidF

Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting get understanding.