2015 Hate Crimes Statistics

Bias motivation Incidents Offenses Victims Offenders
Total 5,850 6,885 7,173 5,493
Single-Bias Incidents 5,818 6,837 7,121 5,475
Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry: 3,310 4,029 4,216 3,196
Anti-White 613 734 789 681
Anti-Black or African American 1,745 2,125 2,201 1,605
Anti-American Indian or Alaska Native 131 137 141 113
Anti-Asian 111 132 136 108
Anti-Native Hawaiian or Other
Pacific Islander
4 6 6 3
Anti-Multiple Races, Group 113 138 160 83
Anti-Arab 37 47 48 35
Anti-Hispanic or Latino 299 379 392 325
Anti-Other Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry 257 331 343 243
Religion: 1,244 1,354 1,402 809
Anti-Jewish 664 695 731 387
Anti-Catholic 53 59 60 29
Anti-Protestant 37 47 48 18
Anti-Islamic (Muslim) 257 301 307 228
Anti-Other Religion 96 104 107 53
Anti-Multiple Religions, Group 51 57 58 30
Anti-Mormon 8 8 8 6
Anti-Jehovah’s Witness 1 1 1 0
Anti-Eastern Orthodox
(Russian, Greek, Other)
48 50 50 36
Anti-Other Christian 15 18 18 15
Anti-Buddhist 1 1 1 1
Anti-Hindu 5 5 5 2
Anti-Sikh 6 6 6 4
Anti-Atheism/Agnosticism/etc. 2 2 2 0
Sexual Orientation: 1,053 1,219 1,263 1,221
Anti-Gay (Male) 664 758 786 803
Anti-Lesbian 136 168 170 142
Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender (Mixed Group) 203 235 248 218
Anti-Heterosexual 19 23 24 19
Anti-Bisexual 31 35 35 39
Disability: 74 88 88 73
Anti-Physical 43 52 52 40
Anti-Mental 31 36 36 33
Gender: 23 29 30 19
Anti-Male 7 8 8 6
Anti-Female 16 21 22 13
Gender Identity: 114 118 122 157
Anti-Transgender 73 75 76 114
Anti-Gender Non-Conforming 41 43 46 43
Multiple-Bias Incidents 32 48 52 18

From FBI Crime Database: 2015 Hate Crime Statistics


Canaima National Park


Canaima National Park (SpanishParque Nacional Canaima) is a 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi) park in south-eastern Venezuela that roughly occupies the same area as the Gran Sabana region. It is located in Bolívar State, reaching the borders with Brazil and Guyana.


Canaima National Park was established on 12 June 1962.

As early as 1990 the countries that participate in the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty had recommended expanding the Canaima National Park southward to connect it with Monte Roraima National Park in Brazil, with coordinated management of tourism, research and conservation. In 1994, the Canaima National Park was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as a natural reserve that has abrupt relief special and unique around the world, the tepuis.


Canaima National Park is the second largest park in Venezuela, after Parima-Tapirapecó, and sixth biggest national park in the world. It is the size of Belgium or Maryland.

The park protects part of the Guayanan Highlands moist forests ecoregion. About 65% of the park is occupied by plateaus of rock called tepuis, which are a kind of table-top mountain millions of years old, with vertical walls and almost flat tops. These constitute a unique biological environment and are also of great geological interest. Their sheer cliffs and waterfalls (including Angel Falls, which is the highest waterfall in the world, at 1,002 metres (3,287 ft)) create spectacular landscapes. The most famous tepuis in the park are Mount Roraima, the tallest and easiest to climb, and Auyantepui, the site of Angel Falls. The tepuis are sandstone and date back to a time when South America and Africa were part of a super-continent.

The park is home to indigenous Pemon Indians, part of the Carib linguistic group. The Pemon have an intimate relationship with the tepuis, and believe they are the home of the ‘Mawari’ spirits. The park is relatively remote, with only a few roads connecting towns. Most transport within the park is done by light plane from the airstrips built by various Capuchin missions, or by foot and canoe. Pemons have developed some basic and luxurious camps, which are mainly visited by tourists from across the world.


From Wikipedia: Canaima National Park

The Orinoco

The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometres (1,330 mi.). Its drainage basin, sometimes called the Orinoquia, covers 880,000 square kilometres (340,000 sq mi.), with 76.3 percent of it in Venezuela and the remainder in Colombia. It is the fourth largest river in the world by discharge volume of water. The Orinoco and its tributaries are the major transportation system for eastern and interior Venezuela and the llanos of Colombia. The Orinoco is extremely diverse and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna.The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometres (1,330 mi.). Its drainage basin, sometimes called the Orinoquia, covers 880,000 square kilometres (340,000 sq mi.), with 76.3 percent of it in Venezuela and the remainder in Colombia. It is the fourth largest river in the world by discharge volume of water. The Orinoco and its tributaries are the major transportation system for eastern and interior Venezuela and the llanos of Colombia. The Orinoco is extremely diverse and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna.


The mouth of the Orinoco at the Atlantic Ocean was documented by Columbus on 1 August 1498, during his third voyage. Its source at the Cerro Delgado–Chalbaud, in the Parima range, was not explored until 1951, 453 years later. The source, near the Venezuelan–Brazilian border, at 1,047 metres (3,435 ft.) above sea level (02°19′05″N 63°21′42″W), was explored in 1951 by a joint Venezuelan–French team.The Orinoco Delta, and tributaries in the eastern llanos such as the Apure and Meta, were explored in the 16th century by German expeditions under Ambrosius Ehinger and his successors. In 1531 Diego de Ordaz, starting at the principal outlet in the delta, the Boca de Navios, sailed up the river to the Meta. Antonio de Berrio sailed down the Casanare to the Meta, and then down the Orinoco and back to Coro. In 1595, after capturing de Berrio to obtain information while conducting an expedition to find the fabled city of El Dorado, the Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh sailed down the river, reaching the savannah country.
Alexander von Humboldt explored the basin in 1800, reporting on the pink river dolphins. He published extensively on the river’s flora and fauna.

The first bridge across the Orinoco was the Angostura Bridge at Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, completed in 1967. In 2006 a second bridge was completed near Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, known as the Orinoquia Bridge.

The first powerline crossing of the Orinoco was completed in 1981 for an 800 kV TL single span of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft.) using two towers 110 metres (360 ft.) tall. In 1992, an overhead power line crossing for two 400 kV-circuits was completed just west of Morocure(between the cities of Ciudad Bolivar and Ciudad Guayana), north of the confluence of Routes 1 and 19. It had three towers, and the two spans measured 2,161 metres (7,090 ft.) and 2,537 metres (8,323 ft.), respectively.


The course of the Orinoco forms a wide ellipsoidal arc, surrounding the Guiana Shield; it is divided in four stretches of unequal length that roughly correspond to the longitudinal zonation of a typical large river:

  • Upper Orinoco— 242 kilometres (150 mi) long, from its headwaters to the rapids Raudales de Guaharibos, flows through mountainous landscape in a northwesterly direction;
  • Middle Orinoco— 750 kilometres (470 mi) long, divided into two sectors, the first of which ca. 480 kilometres (300 mi) long has a general westward direction down to the confluence with the Atabapo and Guaviare rivers at San Fernando de Atabapo; the second flows northward, for about 270 kilometres (170 mi), along the Venezuelan – Colombian border, flanked on both sides by the westernmost granitic upwellings of the Guiana Shield which impede the development of a flood plain, to the Atures rapids near the confluence with the Meta River at Puerto Carreño;
  • Lower Orinoco— 959 kilometres (596 mi) long with a well-developed alluvial plain, flows in a northeast direction, from Atures rapids down to Piacoa in front of Barrancas;
  • Delta Amacuro— 200 kilometres (120 mi) long that empties into the Gulf of Paría and the Atlantic Ocean, a very large delta, some 22,500 km2 (8,700 sq mi) and 370 kilometres (230 mi) at its widest.

At its mouth, the Orinoco forms a wide delta that branches off into hundreds of rivers and waterways that flow through 41,000 km2 (16,000 sq. miles) of swampy forests. In the rainy season, the Orinoco can swell to a breadth of 22 kilometres (14 mi) and a depth of 100 metres (330 ft.).Most of the important Venezuelan rivers are tributaries of the Orinoco, the largest being the Caroní, which joins it at Puerto Ordaz, close to the Llovizna Falls. A peculiarity of the Orinoco river system is the Casiquiare canal, which starts as an arm of the Orinoco, and finds its way to the Rio Negro, a tributary of the Amazon, thus forming a ‘natural canal’ between Orinoco and Amazon.

Major Rivers in the Orinoco Basin

  • Apure: from Venezuela through the east into the Orinoco
  • Arauca: from Colombia to Venezuela east into the Orinoco
  • Atabapo: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco
  • Caroní: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco
  • Casiquiare canal: in SE Venezuela, a distributary from the Orinoco flowing west to the Negro River, a major affluent to the Amazon
  • Caura: from eastern Venezuela (Guiana Highlands) north into the Orinoco
  • Guaviare: from Colombia east into the Orinoco
  • Inírida: from Colombia southeast into the Guaviare.
  • Meta: from Colombia, border with Venezuela east into the Orinoco
  • Ventuari: from eastern Venezuela (the Guiana Highlands) southwest into the Orinoco
  • Vichada: from Colombia east into the Orinoco


The boto (also called the “Amazon river dolphin”) and the giant river otter inhabit the Orinoco River system. The Orinoco crocodile is one of the rarest reptiles in the world. Its range in the wild is restricted to the Orinoco River Basin.

More than 1000 fish species have been recorded in the river basin and about 15% are endemic. Among the fish in the river are species found in brackish or salt water in the Orinoco estuary, but also many restricted to fresh water. By far the largest orders are Characiformes and Siluriformes, which together account for more than 80% of the fresh water species. Some of the more famous are the black spot piranha and the cardinal tetra. The latter species, which is important in the aquarium industry, is also found in the Rio Negro, revealing the connection between this river and the Orinoco through the Casiquiare canal. Because the Casiquiare includes both blackwaterand clear- to whitewater sections, only relatively adaptable species are able to pass through it between the two river systems.

Economic Activity

The river is navigable for most of its length, and dredging enables ocean ships to go as far as Ciudad Bolívar, at the confluence of the Caroní River, 435 kilometres (270 mi) upstream. River steamers carry cargo as far as Puerto Ayacucho and the Atures Rapids.

El Florero Iron Mine

In 1926 a Venezuelan mining inspector found one of the richest iron ore deposits near the Orinoco delta, south of the town of San Felix on a mountain named El Florero. Full-scale mining of the ore deposits began after World War II, by a conglomerate of Venezuelan firms and US steel companies. At the start in the early 1950s, about 10,000 tons of ore-bearing soil was mined per day.

Tar Sands

The Orinoco river deposits also contain extensive tar sands in the Orinoco oil belt, which may be a source of future oil production.

Eastern Venezuelan Basin

Encompassing the states of Anzoategui-Guarico and Monagas states, the Interior Range forms the northern boundary and the Guayana Shield the southern. Maturin forms the eastern subbasin and Guarico the western. The El Furrial oil field was discovered in 1978, producing from late Oligocene shallow marine sandstones in an overthrusted foreland basin.

Recreation and Sports

Since 1988, the local government of Ciudad Guayana has conducted a swim race in the rivers Orinoco and Caroní, with up to 1000 competitors. Since 1991, the “Paso a Nado Internacional de los Rios Orinoco-Caroní” has been celebrated every year, on a Sunday close to 19 April. Worldwide, this swim-meet has gained in importance, and it has a large number of competitors. The 26th meet was held in 2016.

From Wikipedia: The Orinoco

The Problems and Possibilities of Modern Genetics: A Paradigm for Social, Ethical, and Political Analysis

white man


Imagine a future in which any person, man or woman, could engineer a child as a genetic replica of himself or herself. Or a future in which a child could be the biological fusion of the genes of two men or two women. Or a future in which every individual could know, with reasonable certainty, which diseases they would suffer in the months, years, or even decades ahead. Would this new genetic age constitute a better world, or a deformed one? The triumph of modern civilization, or the realization of modernity’s dark side?

With a subject as large and as profound as modern genetics, we face a major question from the start about how to approach it. We could take a scientific approach, examining the use of information technology in genomic research, or the latest advances in identifying certain genetic mutations, or the use of genetic knowledge in the development of medical technologies. We can take a social scientific approach, seeking to understand the economic incentives that drive the genetic research agenda, or surveying public attitudes toward genetic testing, or documenting the use of reproductive genetic technology according to socioeconomic class. We could take a public safety approach, reviewing different genetic tests and therapies for safety and efficacy with a view to identifying regulatory procedures to protect and inform vulnerable patients undergoing gene therapy trials. As we think about the genetic future, all of these approaches are valuable. Yet there are even more fundamental questions that need to be addressed. These concern the human meaning of our growing powers over the human genome.

The reason modern genetics worries, excites, and fascinates the imagination is that we sense that this area of science will affect or even transform the core experiences of being human—such as how we have children, how we experience  freedom, and how we face sickness and death. Like no other area of modern science and technology, genetics inspires both dreams and nightmares about the human future with equal passion: the dream of perfect babies, the nightmare of genetic tyranny. But the dream and the nightmare are not the best guides to understanding how genetics will challenge our moral self-understanding and our social fabric. We need a more sober approach—one that confronts the real ethical and social dilemmas that we face, without constructing such a monstrous image of the future that our gravest warnings are ignored like the bioethics boy who cried wolf.

What is the role of constitutional adjudication in confronting these dilemmas? In a word, that role should be limited. To be sure, American constitutional principles and institutions provide the frameworks and forums for democratic deliberation regarding bioethical and other important moral questions, but in most cases it will not be possible to resolve them by reference to norms that can fairly be said to be discoverable in the text, logic, structure, or historical understanding of the Constitution. Reasonable people of goodwill who disagree on these matters may be equally committed to constitutional principles of due process, equal protection, and the like; and it would be deeply wrong—profoundly anti-constitutional—for people on either side of a disputed question left unsettled by the Constitution to manipulate constitutional concepts or language in the hope of  inducing judges, under the guise of interpreting the Constitution, to hand them victories that they have not been able to achieve in the forums of democratic deliberation established by the Constitution itself. It would be a tragedy for our polity if bioethics became the next domain in which over-reaching judges, charged with protecting the rule of law, undermine the constitutional division of powers by usurping the authority vested under the Constitution in the people acting on their own initiative (as is authorized under the laws of some states) or through their elected representatives.


Original article: The Problems and Possibilities of Modern Genetics

Key Thoughts of the New Testament Books

One of the countless great resources from the Blue Letter Bible: Blue Letter Bible

Books Key Thoughts
Matthew Jesus the Son of God and Lord according to Old Testament promise.
Mark Jesus is the Savior who Meets Man’s Needs.
Luke The Son of Man in his Service among Men. The World’s Savior.
John The Son of God in the Moral Glory of his Person and Life.
Acts Christ in Heaven, and the Energy of the Holy Spirit on Earth. What Christ Continued to Do and to Teach by His Spirit in the Apostles. How the Church was Gathered and Built. The Progress of the Kingdom.
Romans Christianity Unfolded in its Doctrine. Righteousness; How Man can be Justified before God.
I Corinthians Church Order and Discipline. Our Relations to Each Other in the Church.
II Corinthians Christian Ministry and Superiority over Circumstances. Our Relation to the World and to Them.
Galatians Christian Blessing and Liberty contrasted in the Law. Stand Fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ has made you Free. The Spirit in the Beginning, Middle, and End of Christian Life and Power.
Ephesians Christ the Measure of Christian Standing and Blessing. Together with Christ.
Philippians Christian Experience. In the Face of Christ. Perfection that is not Perfect. One Thing to Do.
Colossians The Church’s Glories and Fullness in Christ her Head.
I Thessalonians Christ coming to and for the Church, and her Eternal Blessedness.
II Thessalonians Christ coming with His Saints. The Eternal Judgment of Unbelievers.
I Timothy Church Order according to God.
II Timothy Church Disorder and the Individual Pathway.
Titus Christian Qualification for the Ministry and Godly Conduct.
Philemon Christian Love. Counting upon Love between Brother and Brother.
Hebrews Our Apostle’s Priest, Sacrifice, and Witness.
James The Common Sense of Christianity, or Christian Morality in and out of the Church.
I Peter God’s Righteous Government in Relation to Saints.
II Peter God’s Righteous Judgment upon the Public Christian Profession.
I John Christ the Eternal Life and Power of Communion with God.
II John Christ and the Truth the Safeguard against Heresy.
III John Christian Hospitality to the Saints and especially to Laborers.
Jude Apostasy Traced down to the Last Days.
Revelation Christ Assuming the Government of the World. Things to Come.